Edgar Allan Poe

Ivor Griffiths, Poet, Novelist & Short Story Writer

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Edgar Allan Poe

This daguerreotype of Poe was taken in 1848 when he was 39, a year before his death.
Born: January 19, 1809
Boston, Massachusetts USA
Died: October 07, 1849 (aged 40)
Baltimore, Maryland USA
Occupation: Poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic and essayist
Genres: Horror fiction, Crime fiction, Detective fiction
Literary movement: Romanticism
Spouse: Virginia Eliza Clemm Poe
Parents: David Poe, Jr. and Elizabeth Arnold Poe (birth parents), John Allan and Frances Allen (foster parents)
Influences: Lord Byron, Charles Dickens, Ann Radcliffe, Nathaniel Hawthorne
Influenced: Charles Baudelaire, Oscar Wilde, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Robert Louis Stevenson, Arthur Conan Doyle, Clark Ashton Smith, Jules Verne, H. P. Lovecraft, Jorge Luis Borges, Ray Bradbury, Lemony Snicket, Stefan Grabinski

Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of the macabre and mystery, Poe was one of the early American practitioners of the short story and a progenitor of detective fiction and crime fiction. He is also credited with contributing to the emergent science fiction genre.[1] Poe died at the age of 40. The cause of his death is undetermined and has been attributed to alcohol, drugs, cholera, rabies, suicide (although likely to be mistaken with his suicide attempt in the previous year), tuberculosis, heart disease, brain congestion and other agents.[2]


  • 1 Life and career
    • 1.1 Early life
    • 1.2 Military career
    • 1.3 Publishing career
  • 2 Death
    • 2.1 Griswold's "Memoir"
    • 2.2 The Poe Toaster
  • 3 Literary and artistic theory
  • 4 Legacy and lore
  • 5 Selected bibliography
    • 5.1 Poetry
    • 5.2 Tales
  • 6 Poe in popular culture
    • 6.1 Audio interpretations
    • 6.2 Literature
    • 6.3 Music
    • 6.4 Television and film
    • 6.5 Video games
    • 6.6 Visual arts
    • 6.7 Other
  • 7 References
    • 7.1 Notes
    • 7.2 General references
  • 8 External links
    • 8.1 About Poe
    • 8.2 Works

Life and career

This bust of Edgar Allan Poe is found at the University of Virginia where, having lost his tuition due to a gambling problem, he dropped out in 1827.
This bust of Edgar Allan Poe is found at the University of Virginia where, having lost his tuition due to a gambling problem, he dropped out in 1827.

Early life

Poe was born Edgar Poe to a Scots-Irish family in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 19, 1809, the son of actress Elizabeth Arnold Hopkins Poe and actor David Poe, Jr. He had a Mayflower descent, though, from Edward Fuller, through an American great-grandmother.[3][4] The second of three children, his elder brother was William Henry Leonard Poe, and younger sister, Rosalie Poe.[5] His father abandoned their family in 1810.[6] His mother died a year later from "consumption"(TB). Poe was then taken into the home of John Allan, a successful Scottish merchant in Richmond, Virginia who dealt in a variety of goods including tobacco, cloths, wheat, tombstones, and slaves.[7] The Allans served as a foster family but never formally adopted Poe, though they gave him the name "Edgar Allan Poe."[8]

The Allan family baptised young Edgar as Episcopalian in 1812 and John Allan alternatively spoiled and aggressively disciplined his foster son.[9] The family, which included Allan's wife Frances Valentine Allan, traveled to England in 1815, and Edgar sailed with them. He attended the Grammar School in Irvine, Scotland (where John Allan was born) for a short period in 1815, before rejoining the family in London in 1816. He studied at a boarding school in Chelsea until the summer of 1817. He was then entered at Reverend John Bransby’s Manor House School at Stoke Newington, then a suburb four miles north of London.[10] Bransby is mentioned by name as a character in "William Wilson."

Poe moved back with the Allans to Richmond, Virginia in 1820. In 1825, John Allan's friend and business benefactor William Galt, said to be the wealthiest man in Richmond, died and left Allan several acres of real estate. The inheritance was estimated at three quarters of a million dollars. By the summer of 1825, Allan celebrated his expansive wealth by purchasing a two-story brick home named "Moldavia."[11] Poe may have become engaged to Sarah Elmira Royster before he registered at the one-year old University of Virginia in February 1826 with the intent to study languages.[12] The University, in its infancy, was established on the ideals of its founder Thomas Jefferson. It had strict rules against gambling, horses, guns, tobacco and alcohol, however these rules were generally ignored. Jefferson had enacted a system of student self-government, allowing students to choose their own studies, make their own arrangements for boarding, and to report all wrongdoing to the faculty. The unique system was still in chaos and there was a high drop-out rate.[13] During his time there, Poe lost touch with Royster and also became estranged from his foster father over gambling debts. Poe claimed that Allan had not given him sufficient money to register for classes, purchase texts, and procure and furnish a dormitory. Allan did send additional money and clothes, but Poe's debts increased.[14] Poe gave up on the University after a year and, not feeling welcome in Richmond, especially when he learned of his sweetheart Royster having married Alexander Shelton, he traveled to Boston in April 1827, sustaining himself with odd jobs as a clerk and newspaper writer.[15] At some point, he was using the name Henry Le Rennett as a pseudonym.[16]

Military career

Reduced to destitution, Poe enlisted in the United States Army as a private, using the name "Edgar A. Perry" and claiming he was 22 years old (he was 18) on May 26, 1827. He first served at Fort Independence in Boston Harbor for five dollars a month.[17] That same year, he released his first book, a 40-page collection of poetry, Tamerlane and Other Poems attributed only as "by a Bostonian." Only 50 copies were printed, and the book received virtually no attention.[18] Poe's regiment was posted to Fort Moultrie in Charleston, South Carolina and traveled by ship on the brig Waltham on November 8, 1827. Poe was promoted to "artificer," an officer who prepared shells for artillery, and had his monthly pay doubled.[19] After serving for two years and attaining the rank of sergeant major for artillery (the highest rank a noncommissioned officer can achieve), Poe sought to end his five-year enlistment early. He revealed his real name and his circumstances to his commanding officer, Lieutenant Howard, who would only allow Poe to be discharged if he reconciled with John Allan. Howard wrote a letter to Allan, but he was unsympathetic. Several months passed and pleas to Allan were ignored; Allan may not have written to Poe even to make him aware of his foster mother's illness. Frances Allan died on February 28, 1829 and Poe visited the day after her burial. Perhaps softened by his wife's death, John Allan agreed to support Poe's attempt to be discharged in order to receive an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point.[20]

Poe finally was discharged on April 15, 1829 after securing a replacement to finish his enlisted term for him.[21] Before entering West Point, Poe moved to Baltimore, Maryland to stay with his widowed aunt, Maria Clemm, her daughter, Poe's first cousin, Virginia Eliza Clemm, and his brother Henry.[citation needed] Meanwhile, Poe published his second book, Al Aaraaf Tamerlane and Minor Poems in Baltimore in 1829.

Poe traveled to West Point, and took his oath on July 1, 1830.[citation needed] John Allan married a second time. The marriage, and bitter quarrels with Poe over the children born to Allan out of affairs, led to the foster father finally disowning Poe.[citation needed] Poe decided to leave West Point by purposely getting court-martialed. On February 8, 1831, he was tried for gross neglect of duty and disobedience of orders for refusing to attend formations, classes, or church. Poe tactically pled not guilty to induce dismissal, knowing he would be found guilty.[22] He left for New York in February 1831, and released a third volume of poems, simply titled Poems. The book was financed with help from his fellow cadets at West Point, many of whom donated 75 cents to the cause, raising a total of $170. They may have been expecting verses similar to the satirical ones Poe had been writing about commanding officers.[23] Printed by Elam Bliss of New York, it was labeled as "Second Edition" and included a page saying, "To the U.S. Corps of Cadets this volume is respectfully dedicated." The book once again reprinted the long poems "Tamerlane" and "Al Aaraaf" but also six previously unpublished poems including early versions of "To Helen," "Israfel," and "The City in the Sea."[24]

Publishing career

He returned to Baltimore, to his aunt, brother and cousin, in March 1831. Henry died from tuberculosis in August 1831. Poe turned his attention to prose, and placed a few stories with a Philadelphia publication. He also began work on his only drama, Politian. The Saturday Visitor, a Baltimore paper, awarded a prize in October 1833 to his The Manuscript Found in a Bottle. The story brought him to the attention of John P. Kennedy, a Baltimorian of considerable means. He helped Poe place some of his stories, and also introduced him to Thomas W. White, editor of the Southern Literary Messenger in Richmond. Poe became assistant editor of the periodical in July 1835. Within a few weeks, he was discharged after being found drunk repeatedly. Returning to Baltimore, he secretly married Virginia, his cousin, on September 22, 1835. She was 13 at the time, though she is listed on the marriage certificate as being 21.[25]

Reinstated by White after promising good behavior, Poe went back to Richmond with Virginia and her mother, and remained at the paper until January 1837. During this period, its circulation increased from 700 to 3500.[5] He published several poems, book reviews, criticism, and stories in the paper. On May 16, 1836, he entered into marriage in Richmond with Virginia Clemm, this time in public.

Virginia Poe, in a painting created after her death.
Virginia Poe, in a painting created after her death.

The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym was published and widely reviewed in 1838. In the summer of 1839, Poe became assistant editor of Burton's Gentleman's Magazine. He published a large number of articles, stories, and reviews, enhancing the reputation as a trenchant critic that he had established at the Southern Literary Messenger. Also in 1839, the collection Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque was published in two volumes. Though not a financial success, it was a milestone in the history of American literature, collecting such classic Poe tales as "The Fall of the House of Usher", "MS. Found in a Bottle", "Berenice", "Ligeia" and "William Wilson". Poe left Burton's after about a year and found a position as assistant at Graham's Magazine.

In June 1840, Poe published a prospectus announcing his intentions to start his own journal, The Stylus.[26] Originally, Poe intended to call the journal The Penn, as it would have been based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In the June 6, 1840 issue of Philadelphia's Saturday Evening Post, Poe purchased advertising space for his prospectus: "PROSPECTUS OF THE PENN MAGAZINE, A MONTHLY LITERARY JOURNAL, TO BE EDITED AND PUBLISHED IN THE CITY OF PHILADELPHIA, BY EDGAR A. POE."[27] The journal would never be produced.

The evening of January 20, 1842, Virginia broke a blood vessel while singing and playing the piano. Blood began to rush forth from her mouth. It was the first sign of consumption, now more commonly known as tuberculosis. She only partially recovered. Poe began to drink more heavily under the stress of Virginia's illness. He left Graham's and attempted to find a new position, for a time angling for a government post. He returned to New York, where he worked briefly at the Evening Mirror before becoming editor of the Broadway Journal and, later, sole owner. There he became involved in a noisy public feud with Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. On January 29, 1845, his poem "The Raven" appeared in the Evening Mirror and became a popular sensation.

Poe's cottage in the Bronx
Poe's cottage in the Bronx

The Broadway Journal failed in 1846. Poe moved to a cottage in the Fordham section of The Bronx, New York. He loved the Jesuits at Fordham University and frequently strolled about its campus conversing with both students and faculty. Fordham University's bell tower even inspired him to write "The Bells." The Poe Cottage is on the southeast corner of the Grand Concourse and Kingsbridge Road, and is open to the public. Virginia died there on January 30, 1847.

Increasingly unstable after his wife's death, Poe attempted to court the poet Sarah Helen Whitman, who lived in Providence, Rhode Island. Their engagement failed, purportedly because of Poe's drinking and erratic behavior. However, there is also strong evidence that Miss Whitman's mother intervened and did much to derail their relationship. He then returned to Richmond and resumed a relationship with a childhood sweetheart, Sarah Elmira Royster.


Main article: Death of Edgar Allan Poe

On October 3, 1849, Poe was found on the streets of Baltimore delirious and "in great distress, and... in need of immediate assistance," according to the friend who found him, Dr. E. Snodgrass. He was taken to the Washington College Hospital, where he died early on the morning of October 7. Poe was never coherent long enough to explain how he came to be in his dire condition, and, oddly, was wearing clothes that were not his own. Poe is said to have repeatedly called out the name "Reynolds" on the night before his death. Some sources say Poe's final words were "Lord help my poor soul."[28] Poe suffered from bouts of depression and madness, and he may have attempted suicide in 1848.[29]

Poe finally died on Sunday, October 7, 1849 at 5:00 in the morning.[30] The precise cause of Poe's death is disputed and has aroused great controversy.

Griswold's "Memoir"

The day Edgar Allan Poe was buried, a long obituary appeared in the New York Tribune signed "Ludwig" which was soon published throughout the country. The piece began, "Edgar Allan Poe is dead. He died in Baltimore the day before yesterday. This announcement will startle many, but few will be grieved by it."[31] "Ludwig" was soon identified as Rufus Wilmot Griswold, a minor editor and anthologist who had borne a grudge against Poe since 1842. Griswold somehow became executor of Poe's literary estate and attempted to destroy his enemy's reputation after his death.

Rufus Griswold wrote a biographical "Memoir" of Poe, which he included in an 1850 volume of the collected works. Griswold depicted Poe as a depraved, drunk, drug-addled madman and included forged letters as evidence. Griswold's book was denounced by those who knew Poe well, but it became a popularly accepted one. This was due in part because it was the only full biography available and was widely reprinted, and in part because it seemed to accord with the narrative voice Poe used in much of his fiction.

The Poe Toaster

Main article: Poe Toaster

Adding to the mystery surrounding Poe's death, an unknown visitor affectionately referred to as the "Poe Toaster" has paid homage to Poe's grave every year since 1949. Though likely to have been several individuals in the more than 50 year history of this tradition, the tribute is always the same. Every January 19 in the early hours of the morning the man makes a toast of cognac to Poe's original grave marker and leaves three roses. Members of the Edgar Allan Poe Society in Baltimore have helped in protecting this tradition for decades.

Literary and artistic theory

In his essay "The Poetic Principle", Poe would argue that there is no such thing as a long poem, since the ultimate purpose of art is aesthetic, that is, its purpose is the effect it has on its audience, and this effect can only be maintained for a brief period of time (the time it takes to read a lyric poem, or watch a drama performed, or view a painting, etc.). He argued that an epic, if it has any value at all, must be actually a series of smaller pieces, each geared towards a single effect or sentiment, which "elevates the soul".

Poe associated the aesthetic aspect of art with pure ideality claiming that the mood or sentiment created by a work of art elevates the soul, and is thus a spiritual experience. In many of his short stories, artistically inclined characters (especially Roderick Usher from "The Fall of the House of Usher") are able to achieve this ideal aesthetic through fixation, and often exhibit obsessive personalities and reclusive tendencies. "The Oval Portrait" also examines fixation, but in this case the object of fixation is itself a work of art.

He championed art for art's sake (before the term itself was coined). He was consequentially an opponent of didacticism, arguing in his literary criticisms that the role of moral or ethical instruction lies outside the realm of poetry and art, which should only focus on the production of a beautiful work of art. He criticized James Russell Lowell in a review for being excessively didactic and moralistic in his writings, and argued often that a poem should be written "for a poem's sake". Since a poem's purpose is to convey a single aesthetic experience, Poe argues in his literary theory essay "The Philosophy of Composition", the ending should be written first. Poe's inspiration for this theory was Charles Dickens, who wrote to Poe in a letter dated March 6, 1842,

Apropos of the "construction" of "Caleb Williams," do you know that Godwin wrote it backwards, — the last volume first, — and that when he had produced the hunting down of Caleb, and the catastrophe, he waited for months, casting about for a means of accounting for what he had done?[32]

Poe refers to the letter in his essay. Dickens's literary influence on Poe can also be seen in Poe's short story "The Man of the Crowd." Its depictions of urban blight owe much to Dickens and in many places purposefully echo Dickens's language.[citation needed]

He was a proponent and supporter of magazine literature, and felt that short stories, or "tales" as they were called in the early nineteenth century, which were usually considered "vulgar" or "low art" along with the magazines that published them, were legitimate art forms on par with the novel or epic poem. His insistence on the artistic value of the short story was influential in the short story's rise to prominence in later generations.

Poe often included elements of popular pseudosciences such as phrenology[33] and physiognomy[34] in his fiction.

Poe also focused the theme of each of his short stories on one human characteristic. In "The Tell-Tale Heart", he focused on guilt, in "The Fall of the House of Usher", his focus was fear, etc.

Much of Poe's work was allegorical, but his position on allegory was a nuanced one: "In defence of allegory, (however, or for whatever object, employed,) there is scarcely one respectable word to be said. Its best appeals are made to the fancy — that is to say, to our sense of adaptation, not of matters proper, but of matters improper for the purpose, of the real with the unreal; having never more of intelligible connection than has something with nothing, never half so much of effective affinity as has the substance for the shadow."[35]

Legacy and lore

Main article: Edgar Allan Poe's literary influence

Selected bibliography

Main article: Bibliography of Edgar Allan Poe


  • "Annabel Lee"
  • "The Bells"
  • "Eldorado"
  • "Lenore"
  • "The Raven"
  • "Ulalume"


  • "The Black Cat"
  • "The Cask of Amontillado"
  • "The Fall of the House of Usher"
  • "The Gold-Bug"
  • "Hop-Frog"
  • "Ligeia"
  • "The Man of the Crowd"
  • "The Masque of the Red Death"
  • "The Murders in the Rue Morgue"
  • "The Pit and the Pendulum"
  • "The Purloined Letter"
  • "The Tell-Tale Heart"

Poe in popular culture

Main article: Edgar Allan Poe in popular culture

Audio interpretations

  • Vincent Price collaborated with actor Basil Rathbone on a collection of their readings of Poe's stories and poems.
  • A double-CD organized by Hal Willner, "Closed On Account of Rabies" with poems and tales of Poe performed by artists as diverse as Christopher Walken, Marianne Faithfull, Iggy Pop and Jeff Buckley was issued in 1997.


  • Author Ray Bradbury is a great admirer of Poe, and has either featured Poe as a character or alluded to Poe's stories in many of his works. Notable is Fahrenheit 451, a novel based in a world where books are banned and burned. A character in the novel memorizes Tales of Mystery and Imagination to make sure it is not lost forever.
  • Robert R. McCammon wrote Ushers Passing, a sequel to Fall of the House of Usher, published in 1984
  • The comic/graphic novel "Lenore, the Cute Little Dead Girl" features a dead little girl inspired by Poe's poem "Lenore."
  • Linda Fairstein's 2005 novel Entombed features a modern day serial killer obsessed with Poe. The story takes place amongst Poe's old haunts in New York.
  • Writer Stephen Marlowe adapted the strange details of Poe's death into his 1995 novel The Lighthouse at the End of the World.
  • Clive Cussler's 2004 novel Lost City has numerous references to Poe's works. For example, the end is similar to "The Fall of the House of Usher," during the costume party, all the guest are dressed up as characters from his works, and death and torture methods in the novel are similar to "The Pit and the Pendulum" and "The Cask of Amontillado."
  • Norwegian comic Nemi has got a special page with Nemi drawings to a poem by Poe.
  • The 1995 novel Nevermore, by William Hjortsberg concerns a serial killer whose murders are based on Poe's stories; the detectives are the odd couple Harry Houdini and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.


Main article: Edgar Allan Poe and music

Television and film

Main article: Edgar Allan Poe in television and film

Video games

  • In 1995 several of Poe's stories were combined to make an interactive novel stylised as a video game called The Dark Eye. Beat legend William S. Burroughs read the poem "Annabel Lee" and the story "The Masque of the Red Death" for the game soundtrack.
  • In the Nintendo video game series The Legend Of Zelda, the ghost-like beings that are featured throughout the games are called Poes.
  • In 2002, Eternal Darkness: Sanity's Requiem (a video game for the Nintendo Gamecube) features a quote from "The Raven" upon startup, and is often said to have many elements inspired by his works (although it draws more inspiration from H.P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu Mythos).
  • In the Konami video game Lunar Knights, there's a pair of enemies collectively named The Poes, with their individual names being Viscount Edgar and Viscountess Virginia.

Visual arts

  • In the world of visual arts, Gustave Doré and Édouard Manet composed several illustrations for Poe's works.
  • Edgar Allan Poe is a semi-frequent character in the webcomic Thinkin' Lincoln.


  • The bar in which Poe was last seen drinking before his death still stands in Fells Point in Baltimore, MD. Though the name has changed and it is now known as The Horse You Came In On, local lore insists that a ghost they call "Edgar" haunts the rooms above.[36]
  • The United States Navy commissioned a vessel named after Poe, the USS E.A. Poe (IX-103).
  • Poe's image adorns the bottle cap of Raven Beer.[37]
  • Edgar Allan Poe is credited with the inspiration for pro wrestler Scott Levy's stage name, Raven.
  • In 1996, the NFL franchise known as the Cleveland Browns relocated to Baltimore and assumed a new identity, including a new nickname, the Ravens, which was chosen following a telephone poll by the Baltimore Sun. The poll included three choices, the others being Americans and Marauders, but Ravens won by a wide margin, garnering nearly two-thirds of the 33,288 votes.[38] The Ravens have 3 mascots named Edgar, Allan and Poe.[39]


  1. ^ Stableford, Brian. "Science fiction before the genre." The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction, edited by Edward James and Farah Mendlesohn. Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press, 2003. pp 18-19.
  2. ^ Meyers, Jeffrey. Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy. Cooper Square Press, 1992. p. 256
  3. ^ http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=glencoe&id=I31373 The Ancestry of Overmire Tifft Richardson Bradford Reed
  4. ^ http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=PED&db=glencoe&id=I31373 The Ancestry of Overmire Tifft Richardson Bradford Reed
  5. ^ a b Allen, Hervey. Introduction to The Works of Edgar Allan Poe, P. F. Collier & Son, New York, 1927.
  6. ^ Poe Chronology. Retrieved on 2007-06-03.
  7. ^ Meyers, Jeffrey. Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy. Cooper Square Press, 1992. p. 8
  8. ^ "Poe's Middle Name". Retrieved on 2007-06-03.
  9. ^ Meyers, Jeffrey. Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy. Cooper Square Press, 1992. p. 9
  10. ^ Silverman, Kenneth. Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and Never-ending Remembrance. Harper Perennial, 1991. p. 16-8
  11. ^ Silverman, Kenneth. Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and Never-ending Remembrance. Harper Perennial, 1991. p. 27-8
  12. ^ Silverman, Kenneth. Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and Never-ending Remembrance. Harper Perennial, 1991. p. 29-30
  13. ^ Meyers, Jeffrey. Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy. Cooper Square Press, 1992. p. 21-2
  14. ^ Silverman, Kenneth. Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and Never-ending Remembrance. Harper Perennial, 1991. 32-4
  15. ^ Meyers, Jeffrey. Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy. Cooper Square Press, 1992. p. 32
  16. ^ Silverman, Kenneth. Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and Never-ending Remembrance. Harper Perennial, 1991. p. 41
  17. ^ Meyers, Jeffrey. Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy. Cooper Square Press, 1992. p. 32
  18. ^ Meyers, Jeffrey. Edgar Allan Poe: HIs Life and Legacy. Cooper Square Press, 1992. p. 33-4
  19. ^ Meyers, Jeffrey. Edgar Allan Poe: HIs Life and Legacy. Cooper Square Press, 1992. p. 35
  20. ^ Silverman, Kenneth. Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and Never-ending Remembrance. Harper Perennial, 1991. p. 43-7
  21. ^ Meyers, Jeffrey. Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy. Cooper Square Press, 1992. p. 38
  22. ^ Hecker, William J. Private Perry and Mister Poe: The West Point Poems. Louisiana State University Press, 2005. pp. 49-51
  23. ^ Meyers, Jeffrey. Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy. Cooper Square Press, 1992. pp. 50-1
  24. ^ Hecker, William J. Private Perry and Mister Poe: The West Point Poems. Louisiana State University Press, 2005. pp. 53-4
  25. ^ Meyers, Jeffrey. Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy. New York: Cooper Square Press, 1992. p. 85 ISBN 0815410387
  26. ^ Meyers, Jeffrey. Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy. Cooper Square Press, 1992. p. 119
  27. ^ Silverman, Kenneth. Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and Never-ending Remembrance. Harper Perennial, 1991. p. 159
  28. ^ Meyers, Jeffrey: Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy. Cooper Square Press, 1992: p. 255.
  29. ^ Silverman, Kenneth. Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and Never-ending Remembrance. Harper Perennial, 1991. p. 374
  30. ^ Meyers, Jeffrey: Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy. Cooper Square Press, 1992: p. 255.
  31. ^ To read Griswold's full obituary, see Edgar Allan Poe obituary at Wikisource.
  32. ^ eapoe.org/misc/letters/t4203060.htm. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
  33. ^ Edward Hungerford. "Poe and Phrenology," American Literature 1(1930): 209-31.
  34. ^ Erik Grayson. "Weird Science, Weirder Unity: Phrenology and Physiognomy in Edgar Allan Poe" Mode 1 (2005): 56-77. Also online.
  35. ^ www.eapoe.org/WORKS/criticsm/hawthgr.html. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
  36. ^ Lake, Matt. Weird Maryland, Sterling Publishing, New York, 2006, p. 195. ISBN 1-4027-3906-0
  37. ^ Baltimore-Washington Beer Works
  38. ^ Key dates in Baltimore Ravens history
  39. ^ http://www.sportsecyclopedia.com/nfl/baltrav/ravens.html Key dates in Baltimore Ravens history

General references

  • Edgar Allan Poe: Poetry and Tales (Patrick F. Quinn, ed.) (Library of America, 1984) ISBN 9780940450189
  • Edgar Allan Poe: Essays and Reviews (G.R. Thompson, ed.) (Library of America, 1984) ISBN 9780940450196
  • Collected Works of Edgar Allan Poe, Walter J. Black Inc, New York, (1927).
  • Edgar Allan Poe: A Critical Biography, Arthur Hobson Quinn, New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc, (1941). ISBN 0801857309
  • Collected Works of Edgar Allan Poe, three volumes (I and II Tales and Sketches, III Poems), edited by Thomas Ollive Mabbott, The Belknap Press Of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England, (1978).
  • The Unknown Poe, edited by Raymond Foye. City Lights, San Francisco, CA. Prefaces, Copyright by Raymond Foye, (1980).
  • Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and Never-ending Remembrance by Kenneth Silverman. Harper Perennial, New York, NY, (1991).
  • The Poe Encyclopedia by Frederick S. Frank and Anthony Magistrale. Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut and London, England, (1997). ISBN 0313277680
  • The Classics of Style, by Edgar Allan Poe, et al., The American Academic Press, (2006). ISBN 0978728203
  • Poe Museum in Richmond, Virginia
  • Edgar Allan Poe's Signature
  • Poe Cottage Bronx
  • Poe's True Prediction about Cannibalism
  • Poe Society in Baltimore
  • Maryland Public Television's Knowing Poe: The Literature, Life, and Times of Edgar Allan Poe in Baltimore and Beyond
  • In a Sequestered Providence Churchyard Where Once Poe Walked - H. P. Lovecraft poem referencing Poe's visits to Whitman
  • 1992 audio interview with Ken Silverman, author of Edgar A Poe : Mournful and Never-ending Remembrance by Don Swaim
  • Works

    • Poems by Edgar Allan Poe at PoetryFoundation.org
    • Works by Edgar Allan Poe at Project Gutenberg
    • Selected Works of Poe at Inspired Poetry
    • PoeStories.com - A well organized site with summaries, quotes, and full text of Poe's short stories, a Poe timeline, and image gallery. Stories have linked vocabulary words and definitions for educational reading.
    • The Edgar Allan Poe Virtual Library
    • Audio recordings at Literal Systems
    • The Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore - Poe's complete works and a wealth of biographical and critical material, including a review of the known facts about Poe's death
    • Public domain recording of "The Raven"
    • Edgar A.Poe cryptographic challenge solved
    • Poe Short Story Audiobooks - free download
    • WorldCat Identities page for 'Poe, Edgar Allan 1809-1849'

    The works of Edgar Allan Poe

    Poetry (1824) • O, Tempora! O, Mores! (1825) • Song (1827) • Imitation (1827) • Spirits of the Dead (1827) • A Dream (1827) • Stanzas" (1827) (1827) • Tamerlane (1827) • The Lake (1827) • Evening Star (1827) • A Dream (1827) • To Margaret (1827) • The Happiest Day (1827) • To The River —— (1828) • Romance (1829) • Fairy-Land (1829) • To Science (1829) • To Isaac Lea (1829) • Al Aaraaf (1829) • An Acrostic (1829) • Elizabeth (1829) • To Helen (1831) • A Paean (1831) • The Sleeper (1831) • The City in the Sea (1831) • The Valley of Unrest (1831) • Israfel (1831) • The Coliseum (1833) • Enigma (1833) • Fanny (1833) • Serenade (1833) • Song of Triumph from Epimanes (1833) • Latin Hymn (1833) • To One in Paradise (1833) • Hymn (1835) • Politician (1835) • May Queen Ode (1836) • Spiritual Song (1836) • Bridal Ballad (1837) • To Zante (1837) • The Haunted Palace (1839) • Silence, a Sonnet (1839) • Lines on Joe Locke (1843) • The Conqueror Worm (1843) • Lenore (1843) • Eulalie (1843) • A Campaign Song (1844) • Dream-Land (1844) • Impromptu. To Kate Carol (1845) • To Frances (1845) • The Divine Right of Kings (1845) • Epigram for Wall Street (1845) • The Raven (1845) • A Valentine (1846) • Beloved Physician (1847) • An Enigma (1847) • Deep in Earth (1847) • Ulalume (1847) • Lines on Ale (1848) • To Marie Louise (1848) • Evangeline (1848) • A Dream Within A Dream (1849) • Eldorado (1849) • For Annie (1849) • The Bells (1849) • Annabel Lee (1849) • Alone (1875)

    Metzengerstein (1832) • The Duc De L'Omelette (1832) • A Tale of Jerusalem (1832) • Loss of Breath (1832) • Bon-Bon (1832) • MS. Found in a Bottle (1833) • The Assignation (1834) • Berenice (1835) • Morella (1835) • Lionizing (1835) • The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall (1835) • King Pest (1835) • Shadow - A Parable (1835) • Four Beasts in One - The Homo-Cameleopard (1836) • Mystification (1837) • Silence - A Fable (1837) • Ligeia (1838) • How to Write a Blackwood Article (1838) • A Predicament (1838) • The Devil in the Belfry (1839) • The Man That Was Used Up (1839) • The Fall of the House of Usher (1839) • William Wilson (1839) • The Conversation of Eiros and Charmion (1839) • Why the Little Frenchman Wears His Hand in a Sling (1840) • The Business Man (1840) • The Man of the Crowd (1840) • The Murders in the Rue Morgue (1841) • A Descent into the Maelstrom (1841) • The Island of the Fay (1841) • The Colloquy of Monos and Una (1841) • Never Bet the Devil Your Head (1841) • Eleonora (1841) • Three Sundays in a Week (1841) • The Oval Portrait (1842) • The Masque of the Red Death (1842) • The Landscape Garden (1842) • The Mystery of Marie Roget (1842) • The Pit and the Pendulum (1842) • The Tell-Tale Heart (1843) • The Gold-Bug (1843) • The Black Cat (1843) • Diddling (1843) • The Spectacles (1844) • A Tale of the Ragged Mountains (1844) • The Premature Burial (1844) • Mesmeric Revelation (1844) • The Oblong Box (1844) • The Angel of the Odd (1844) • Thou Art the Man (1844) • The Literary Life of Thingum Bob, Esq. (1844) • The Purloined Letter (1844) • The Thousand-and-Second Tale of Scheherazade (1845) • Some Words with a Mummy (1845) • The Power of Words (1845) • The Imp of the Perverse (1845) • The System of Doctor Tarr and Professor Fether (1845) • The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar (1845) • The Sphinx (1846) • The Cask of Amontillado (1846) • The Domain of Arnheim (1847) • Mellonta Tauta (1849) • Hop-Frog (1849) • Von Kempelen and His Discovery (1849) • X-ing a Paragrab (1849) • Landor's Cottage (1849)
    Other Works
    Essays: Maelzel's Chess Player (1836) • The Daguerreotype (1840) • The Philosophy of Furniture (1840) • A Few Words on Secret Writing (1841) • The Rationale of Verse (1843) • Morning on the Wissahiccon (1844) • Old English Poetry (1845) • The Philosophy of Composition (1846) • The Poetic Principle (1846) • Eureka (1848) Hoaxes:The Balloon-Hoax (1844) Novels: The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket (1837) • The Journal of Julius Rodman (1840) Plays: Scenes From 'Politian' (1835) Other: The Conchologist's First Book (1839) • The Light-House (1849)
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    NAME Poe, Edgar Allan
    SHORT DESCRIPTION American poet, short story writer and literary critic
    DATE OF BIRTH January 19, 1809
    PLACE OF BIRTH Boston, Massachusetts
    DATE OF DEATH October 7, 1849
    PLACE OF DEATH Baltimore, Maryland

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